Marginal Zone B Cell Lymphoma
Marginal Zone B Cell Lymphomas are classified by slowly progressing (Indolent) diseases that affect the B-lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells. They include any type of Lymphoma that develops at the edge of lymphatic tissues, also known as the “marginal zone”. There are three subtypes of Marginal Zone Lymphoma (MZL) and together they account for 8% of all Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL). NHL is any lymphoma that's not Hodgkin lymphoma. Hodgkin lymphomas comprise irregular cells called “Reed–Sternberg cells”.
For Marginal Zone B Cell Lymphoma and other MZL types, testing is done first. After initial testing, you may need a sample of your bone marrow cells taken, to check if you have lymphoma cells in your bone marrow. Rarely, you might need a lumbar puncture or MRI scan to verify if you have lymphoma in your brain or spinal cord. For MZL, A biopsy of a contaminated lymph node, is required for a correct diagnosis of the lymphoma subtype by identifying which type of blood cells are being affected.
What are the subtypes of Marginal Zone Lymphoma?
Each subtype is identified by where the cancer originated in the body. The three types of Marginal Zone Lymphoma include:
Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma (MALT Lymphoma): originates in lymphoid tissue outside the lymph nodes, this is the most common subtype and makes up two thirds of all MZL cases. Can occur in the intestines, lungs, eyes, stomach, or salivary/thyroid gland. Most patients have a prior history of chronic infection, inflammation, or autoimmune disorders in the organ affected by the Lymphoma. Because MALT is linked to an infection, your doctor could advocate antibiotic remedy over a two-week interval, a majority of patients experience positive responses.
Splenic Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma: Develops in the spleen and accounts for 20% of all MZL cases. Patients with Splenic MZL are prone to developing Hepatitis C or other infections. Because of the enlarged spleen, MZL effecting the spleen could cause an irregular blood count, fatigue, and discomfort.
Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma: Originates in the lymph nodes. The rarest subtype, accounts for only 10% of all MZL cases. In some cases, this also develops in the bone marrow.
Sometimes low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma can change into a quicker-rising lymphoma as it relapses or develops over time without proper treatment. People could discover bulging of the eyeball without pain, vision loss, or blurry vision. Rarely, MZL can transform right into a more aggressive lymphoma, but if it does, it is usually Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma DLBCL.
MZL may also start exterior the abdomen (non-gastric) in the lung, skin, thyroid, salivary glands, or tissues surrounding the eye. Usually the lymphoma stays in the area where it begins and is not widespread or metastasized.
What treatments are used for Marginal Zone B Cell Lymphoma?
The prognosis of MZL patients is dependent upon many components, including what type of lymphoma, the stage of lymphoma and overall well-being of the patient. Some patients without symptoms might not receive treatment at first and will be actively monitored over time. Antibiotic therapy is used for patients who have underlying infections that resulted in MZL. Surgery is performed depending on the part of the body that the lymphoma is found in. For example, Splenic MZL patients can have their spleen removed (Splenectomy) and MALT Lymphoma patients can receive surgery if the breast or lungs are affected. Surgery is typically followed by radiation therapy.
Most patients with nodal marginal zone lymphoma with advanced stage illness and are not likely to achieve a cure, even with aggressive chemotherapy regimens, which are given to a large portion of all lymphoma patients. The relative treatment intensity is usually considered with the extent of illness, price of progression, and urgency for remedy response. Clinical researchers are actively investigating current treatments to find improvements and test the feasibility of new drugs to treat MZL. Clinical trials provide alternative treatment options for those who have not had a positive response from first-line therapies.